Glacier snow densities in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica from 1993 to present

Summary

Abstract: 

As part of the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) project in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, a systematic sampling program has been undertaken to monitor glacial mass balance and meltwater flow. This data package includes snow density measurements determined at each stake with snow present on glaciers in Taylor Valley (Canada, Commonwealth, Howard, and Taylor) and Miers Valley (Adams), all of which are located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Included here for each stake are the snow thickness and density for each layer and the average density for each pit. Most measurements began during the 93-94 field season. Adams measurements were established during the 14-15 field season. Measurements are ongoing. Monitoring the changes in these measurements over time provides a record of mass balance, and aids in determining the role of glaciers in the polar hydrologic cycle.

Date Range: 

October 25, 1993 to February 5, 2019
Data Citation
Gooseff, M.N., Fountain, A.G. 2019. McMurdo Dry Valleys LTER: Glacier snow densities in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica from 1993 to present. Environmental Data Initiative. DOI: 10.6073/pasta/37ed6d9cfc9b02285af48175a807373a. Dataset accessed 5 August 2020.
Dataset(s)

Description: 

Adams Glacier - Snow Densities

Variables (click to expand): 

DATASET CODE
  • Label:
  • Definition: Code representing glacier snow density dataset
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
GLACIER
  • Label:
  • Definition: NAME OF GLACIER WHERE MEASUREMENT WAS MADE
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
STAKE
  • Label:
  • Definition: UNIQUE NUMBER FOR EACH STAKE ON GLACIER
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
DATE_TIME
  • Label:
  • Definition: DATE OF DATA MEASUREMENT
  • Type: Date/time
  • Date format: MM/DD/YYYY
  • Missing values: None specified
LAYER
  • Label:
  • Definition: Unit of snow identified as distinct by hardness from other units in a snow pit.
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
THICKNESS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Height of distinct layer in snow pit
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: centimeter
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values: None specified
TOTAL_MASS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Mass of snow and bag measured by a scale in the field
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gram
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
BAG_MASS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Mass of the bag before adding snow
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gram
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
SNOW_MASS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Subtraction of the mass of the bag from the total mass
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gram
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
DENSITY
  • Label:
  • Definition: Snow mass divided by 100cm3, which the volume of the sampling tool used to extract the snow sample
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gramsPerCubicCentimeter
  • Maximum: 1
  • Minimum: 0
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
WEIGHTED_DENSITY
  • Label:
  • Definition: the density times the thickness of the layer, which is used to weight the density if there are more than one layer in the pit
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gramsPerSquareCentimeter
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
AVG_SNOWPACK_DENSITY
  • Label:
  • Definition: the sum of the weighted densities dived by the sum of the thickness of all the layers.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gramsPerCubicCentimeter
  • Maximum: 1
  • Minimum: 0
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values: None specified
SDC
  • Label:
  • Definition: (snow density competency) - a qualitative description of how readable the sample was extracted from the snow pit. One (1) indicates that a good sample, with little snow loss was collected, 2 indicates some loss of snow, while 3 indicates that obtaining a nearly complete sample was not possible due to either the lack of cohesion of the snow or the snow wasto hard to collect a sample.
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
LAYER_DESCRIPTION
  • Label:
  • Definition: Field observations of the snow layer: hardness of the snow, and snow grain shapes and sizes.
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
COMMENTS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Notes on snow density measurements
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
GLSTKID
  • Label:
  • Definition: CODE FROM GLACIER / STAKE/ DATE OF COORDINATE MEASUREMENT (TO BE USED FOR GIS MAPPING)
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
FILE NAME
  • Label:
  • Definition: RAW DATA FILE CONTAINING INFORMATION
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified

File: 

ADASNWDNS.csv (9.1 KB)

...or query the dataset by variables and dates of interest:

Description: 

Canada Glacier - Snow Density

Variables (click to expand): 

DATASET CODE
  • Label:
  • Definition: Code representing glacier snow density dataset
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
GLACIER
  • Label:
  • Definition: NAME OF GLACIER WHERE MEASUREMENT WAS MADE
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
STAKE
  • Label:
  • Definition: UNIQUE NUMBER FOR EACH STAKE ON GLACIER
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
DATE_TIME
  • Label:
  • Definition: DATE OF DATA MEASUREMENT
  • Type: Date/time
  • Date format: MM/DD/YYYY
  • Missing values: None specified
LAYER
  • Label:
  • Definition: Unit of snow identified as distinct by hardness from other units in a snow pit.
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
THICKNESS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Height of distinct layer in snow pit
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: centimeter
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values: None specified
TOTAL_MASS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Mass of snow and bag measured by a scale in the field
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gram
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
BAG_MASS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Mass of the bag before adding snow
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gram
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
SNOW_MASS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Subtraction of the mass of the bag from the total mass
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gram
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
DENSITY
  • Label:
  • Definition: Snow mass divided by 100cm3, which the volume of the sampling tool used to extract the snow sample
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gramsPerCubicCentimeter
  • Maximum: 1
  • Minimum: 0
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
WEIGHTED_DENSITY
  • Label:
  • Definition: the density times the thickness of the layer, which is used to weight the density if there are more than one layer in the pit
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gramsPerSquareCentimeter
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
AVG_SNOWPACK_DENSITY
  • Label:
  • Definition: the sum of the weighted densities dived by the sum of the thickness of all the layers.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gramsPerCubicCentimeter
  • Maximum: 1
  • Minimum: 0
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values: None specified
SDC
  • Label:
  • Definition: (snow density competency) - a qualitative description of how readable the sample was extracted from the snow pit. One (1) indicates that a good sample, with little snow loss was collected, 2 indicates some loss of snow, while 3 indicates that obtaining a nearly complete sample was not possible due to either the lack of cohesion of the snow or the snow wasto hard to collect a sample.
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
LAYER_DESCRIPTION
  • Label:
  • Definition: Field observations of the snow layer: hardness of the snow, and snow grain shapes and sizes.
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
COMMENTS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Notes on snow density measurements
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
GLSTKID
  • Label:
  • Definition: CODE FROM GLACIER / STAKE/ DATE OF COORDINATE MEASUREMENT (TO BE USED FOR GIS MAPPING)
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
FILE NAME
  • Label:
  • Definition: RAW DATA FILE CONTAINING INFORMATION
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified

File: 

CANSNWDNS.csv (35.1 KB)

...or query the dataset by variables and dates of interest:

Description: 

Commonwealth Glacier - Snow Densities

Variables (click to expand): 

DATASET CODE
  • Label:
  • Definition: Code representing glacier snow density dataset
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
GLACIER
  • Label:
  • Definition: NAME OF GLACIER WHERE MEASUREMENT WAS MADE
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
STAKE
  • Label:
  • Definition: UNIQUE NUMBER FOR EACH STAKE ON GLACIER
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
DATE_TIME
  • Label:
  • Definition: DATE OF DATA MEASUREMENT
  • Type: Date/time
  • Date format: MM/DD/YYYY
  • Missing values: None specified
LAYER
  • Label:
  • Definition: Unit of snow identified as distinct by hardness from other units in a snow pit.
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
THICKNESS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Height of distinct layer in snow pit
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: centimeter
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values: None specified
TOTAL_MASS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Mass of snow and bag measured by a scale in the field
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gram
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
BAG_MASS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Mass of the bag before adding snow
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gram
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
SNOW_MASS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Subtraction of the mass of the bag from the total mass
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gram
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
DENSITY
  • Label:
  • Definition: Snow mass divided by 100cm3, which the volume of the sampling tool used to extract the snow sample
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gramsPerCubicCentimeter
  • Maximum: 1
  • Minimum: 0
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
WEIGHTED_DENSITY
  • Label:
  • Definition: the density times the thickness of the layer, which is used to weight the density if there are more than one layer in the pit
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gramsPerSquareCentimeter
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
AVG_SNOWPACK_DENSITY
  • Label:
  • Definition: the sum of the weighted densities dived by the sum of the thickness of all the layers.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gramsPerCubicCentimeter
  • Maximum: 1
  • Minimum: 0
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values: None specified
SDC
  • Label:
  • Definition: (snow density competency) - a qualitative description of how readable the sample was extracted from the snow pit. One (1) indicates that a good sample, with little snow loss was collected, 2 indicates some loss of snow, while 3 indicates that obtaining a nearly complete sample was not possible due to either the lack of cohesion of the snow or the snow wasto hard to collect a sample.
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
LAYER_DESCRIPTION
  • Label:
  • Definition: Field observations of the snow layer: hardness of the snow, and snow grain shapes and sizes.
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
COMMENTS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Notes on snow density measurements
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
GLSTKID
  • Label:
  • Definition: CODE FROM GLACIER / STAKE/ DATE OF COORDINATE MEASUREMENT (TO BE USED FOR GIS MAPPING)
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
FILE NAME
  • Label:
  • Definition: RAW DATA FILE CONTAINING INFORMATION
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified

File: 

COMSNWDNS.csv (240.97 KB)

...or query the dataset by variables and dates of interest:

Description: 

Howard Glacier - Snow Density

Variables (click to expand): 

DATASET CODE
  • Label:
  • Definition: Code representing glacier snow density dataset
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
GLACIER
  • Label:
  • Definition: NAME OF GLACIER WHERE MEASUREMENT WAS MADE
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
STAKE
  • Label:
  • Definition: UNIQUE NUMBER FOR EACH STAKE ON GLACIER
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
DATE_TIME
  • Label:
  • Definition: DATE OF DATA MEASUREMENT
  • Type: Date/time
  • Date format: MM/DD/YYYY
  • Missing values: None specified
LAYER
  • Label:
  • Definition: Unit of snow identified as distinct by hardness from other units in a snow pit.
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
THICKNESS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Height of distinct layer in snow pit
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: centimeter
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values: None specified
TOTAL_MASS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Mass of snow and bag measured by a scale in the field
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gram
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
BAG_MASS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Mass of the bag before adding snow
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gram
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
SNOW_MASS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Subtraction of the mass of the bag from the total mass
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gram
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
DENSITY
  • Label:
  • Definition: Snow mass divided by 100cm3, which the volume of the sampling tool used to extract the snow sample
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gramsPerCubicCentimeter
  • Maximum: 1
  • Minimum: 0
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
WEIGHTED_DENSITY
  • Label:
  • Definition: the density times the thickness of the layer, which is used to weight the density if there are more than one layer in the pit
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gramsPerSquareCentimeter
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
AVG_SNOWPACK_DENSITY
  • Label:
  • Definition: the sum of the weighted densities dived by the sum of the thickness of all the layers.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gramsPerCubicCentimeter
  • Maximum: 1
  • Minimum: 0
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values: None specified
SDC
  • Label:
  • Definition: (snow density competency) - a qualitative description of how readable the sample was extracted from the snow pit. One (1) indicates that a good sample, with little snow loss was collected, 2 indicates some loss of snow, while 3 indicates that obtaining a nearly complete sample was not possible due to either the lack of cohesion of the snow or the snow wasto hard to collect a sample.
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
LAYER_DESCRIPTION
  • Label:
  • Definition: Field observations of the snow layer: hardness of the snow, and snow grain shapes and sizes.
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
COMMENTS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Notes on snow density measurements
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
GLSTKID
  • Label:
  • Definition: CODE FROM GLACIER / STAKE/ DATE OF COORDINATE MEASUREMENT (TO BE USED FOR GIS MAPPING)
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
FILE NAME
  • Label:
  • Definition: RAW DATA FILE CONTAINING INFORMATION
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified

File: 

HOWSNWDNS.csv (107.58 KB)

...or query the dataset by variables and dates of interest:

Description: 

Taylor Glacier - Snow Density

Variables (click to expand): 

DATASET CODE
  • Label:
  • Definition: Code representing glacier snow density dataset
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
GLACIER
  • Label:
  • Definition: NAME OF GLACIER WHERE MEASUREMENT WAS MADE
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
STAKE
  • Label:
  • Definition: UNIQUE NUMBER FOR EACH STAKE ON GLACIER
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
DATE_TIME
  • Label:
  • Definition: DATE OF DATA MEASUREMENT
  • Type: Date/time
  • Date format: MM/DD/YYYY
  • Missing values: None specified
LAYER
  • Label:
  • Definition: Unit of snow identified as distinct by hardness from other units in a snow pit.
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
THICKNESS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Height of distinct layer in snow pit
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: centimeter
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: Not specified
  • Missing values: None specified
TOTAL_MASS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Mass of snow and bag measured by a scale in the field
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gram
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
BAG_MASS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Mass of the bag before adding snow
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gram
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
SNOW_MASS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Subtraction of the mass of the bag from the total mass
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gram
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
DENSITY
  • Label:
  • Definition: Snow mass divided by 100cm3, which the volume of the sampling tool used to extract the snow sample
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gramsPerCubicCentimeter
  • Maximum: 1
  • Minimum: 0
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
WEIGHTED_DENSITY
  • Label:
  • Definition: the density times the thickness of the layer, which is used to weight the density if there are more than one layer in the pit
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gramsPerSquareCentimeter
  • Maximum: Not specified
  • Minimum: Not specified
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values:
    • NULL = None given
AVG_SNOWPACK_DENSITY
  • Label:
  • Definition: the sum of the weighted densities dived by the sum of the thickness of all the layers.
  • Type: Physical quantity
  • Unit: gramsPerCubicCentimeter
  • Maximum: 1
  • Minimum: 0
  • Precision: 0.1
  • Missing values: None specified
SDC
  • Label:
  • Definition: (snow density competency) - a qualitative description of how readable the sample was extracted from the snow pit. One (1) indicates that a good sample, with little snow loss was collected, 2 indicates some loss of snow, while 3 indicates that obtaining a nearly complete sample was not possible due to either the lack of cohesion of the snow or the snow wasto hard to collect a sample.
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
LAYER_DESCRIPTION
  • Label:
  • Definition: Field observations of the snow layer: hardness of the snow, and snow grain shapes and sizes.
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
COMMENTS
  • Label:
  • Definition: Notes on snow density measurements
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
GLSTKID
  • Label:
  • Definition: CODE FROM GLACIER / STAKE/ DATE OF COORDINATE MEASUREMENT (TO BE USED FOR GIS MAPPING)
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified
FILE NAME
  • Label:
  • Definition: RAW DATA FILE CONTAINING INFORMATION
  • Type: Nominal
  • Missing values: None specified

File: 

TAYSNWDNS.csv (1.43 KB)

...or query the dataset by variables and dates of interest:

Short name: 

SNWDNS

Dataset ID: 

2007
People

Principal Investigator(s): 

Contact: 

Associated Personnel: 

Field Crew
Data Manager
Former Field Crew
Former Field Crew
Former Data Manager